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* [https://archive.org/details/thirtyminorupani00xxxxuoft Thirty minor Upanishads],Narayanasvami K. Aiyar, 1914  
 
* [https://archive.org/details/thirtyminorupani00xxxxuoft Thirty minor Upanishads],Narayanasvami K. Aiyar, 1914  
 
* Olivelle, Patrick (1992). The Samnyasa Upanisads. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195070453.
 
* Olivelle, Patrick (1992). The Samnyasa Upanisads. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195070453.
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[[Kategorie:Hinduismus]]

Version vom 13. Dezember 2017, 19:12 Uhr

Die Naradaparivrajaka Upanishad (IAST: Nāradaparivrājaka Upaniṣad) ist ein mittelalterlicher Sanskrittext mit 9 Kapiteln, der dem Atharva Veda zugeordnet wird. Sie gehört zu den kleineren upanishaden und wird auch zu den Sannyasa Upanishaden gezählt.

Inhalt

Die Upanishad beginnt mit einer Geschichte von Nārada, der im mythischen Naimisha - Wald meditiert. Er ist von anderen Weisen begleitet, die ihn bitten, ihnen den Weg zur Moksha zu zeigen.

Nārada erwiedert, ein Mann solle zuerst die samskaraas vollständig durchführen, die Studien des Brahmacharya abschliessen, dann ein Haushalter oder Grihastha füt 25 Jahre sein, ein Vanaprastha oder zurückgezogener Einsiedler für weitere 25 Jahre, sich dann vollständig zurückziehen, wenn er keine Verhaftungen mehr hat, und ruhig und ohne Feindschaft gegen irgendjemanden sein.

Die Upanishad behandelt verschiedene Arten des Pranava und in Kapitel 8 die vier Zustände des Wachens, Träumens, Tiefschlafs und des reinen Bewusstseins des Turiya.


Textauszug - Aiyar

.... Then Narada asked Parameshthi (Brahma) to enlighten him, who had surrendered himself to Him, about samsara-taraka (or that taraka or Pranava which lifts one out of samsara).

Assenting to which, Brahma begafn thus : " Omkara that is Brahman is the vyashti (individual) and the samashti (cosmic). What is the individual ? What is the cosmic ?

Brahma-pranava is of three kinds, samhara- (destructive) pranava, srshti- (creative) pranava, and ubhayatmaka (belonging to both) pranava, as being of two forms, internal and external. (It is also eight :) Antah- pranava, Vyavaharika-pranava, bahya-pranava, arsha-pranava, ubhayatmaka or virat-pranava, samhara-pranava, brahma-pranava, and ardhamatra pranava. Om is Brahman.

Know that the mantra of the one-syllabled Om is Pranava. It has the eight differences of akara, ukara, makara, ardhamatra, nada, bindu, kala, and s akti. Know it is not four (alone) . Akara is associated with ten thousand limbs ; ukara, with one thousand limbs ; makara with one hundred limbs ; ardha matra is of the nature of endless limbs. That which is saguna (associated with gunas) is virat- (preservation) pranava; that which is nirguna (not associated with gunas) is samhara- (or de struction) pranava; that which is associated with gunas and is not so associated, is utpatti- (or origination) pranava. Pluta (the elongated accent) is virat : plutapluta is samhara. The virat- pranava is of the form of sixteen matras and is above the thirty- six tattvas.

The sixteen matras are thus : Akara is the first matra; ukara is the second; inakarais the third; ardhamatra is the fourth ; nfida is the fifth ; bindu is the sixth ; kala is the seventh ; kalatita is the eighth ; s anti is the ninth ; s antyatita is the tenth ; unman! is the eleventh ; manonmani is the twelfth ; purltati is the thirteenth ; tanumadhyama is the fourteenth ; pati is the fifteenth ; para is the sixteenth. Then (again) having sixty-four raatras and their division into the two, Prakrti and Purusha and resolving themselves into the onehundredand twenty-eight differ ences of matras, it becomes saguna and nirguna. Though Brahma- pranava is one only, it is the substratum of all, the support

of the whole universe, of the form of all aksharas (letters), time, Vedas, and S iva. This Omkara should be sought after, that is mentioned in the Vedas of the nature of the Upanishads. Know that this Otnkara is the Atma that is indestructible during the three periods of time, past, present, and future, able to confer sal- ( vation and eulogized by v Brah ma-sound (Vedas).

Having experi enced this one Om as immortal and ageless, and having brought about the Brahma-nature in this body, become convinced that your Atma, associated with the three bodies, is Parabrahman. Through Yis va and others (viz., Taijasa, Prajfia, and Turya) in order, the realisation of Parabrahman should be attained, since Atma is of four kinds through his identification with, and the enjoying of, the gross as well as the enjoyer of the gross, the subtle as well as the enjoyer of the subtle, and through his identification (with the third body) enjoying bliss in the fourth. He has four feet.

The one presiding over the waking state is gross; and since he is the enjoyer of Vis va (the universe), he becomes the sthula-prajfia (gross consciousness). He has nineteen 1 facets and eight parts. He is pervading everywhere and the Lord. He is the enjoyer of the gross and is the chaturatma called Vis va. He alone is the Purusha called Vais vanara. He alone is Vis vajit (the conqueror of the universe). This is the first foot. When this Lord at tains the dreaming condition, he is the sukshma-prajna (subtle consciousness).

O conqueror of all, he is the one having eight limbs, and there is none else. He is the enjoyer of the subtle and is chaturatma, named Taijasa and the protector of elements. He alone is the Hiranyagarbha, presiding over the gross (or subtle matter rather). He is said to form the second foot. Sushupti (or the dreamless sleep) is that state where one sleeps without any desire and where one sees not any dreams. The one identified with this dreamless sleep is Prajnana-ghana, is blissful, of the nature of eternal bliss and the Atma in all creatures; yet he is enjoyer of bliss, has chetas (consciousness) as his (one) foot, is all-pervading, indestructible,

The nineteen are the five organs of sense, the five organs of action, the five pranas, and the four of the mind.

chaturatma and the Lord, and is named Prajna, the third foot. He alone is the Lord of all, the knower of all, the subtle- thoughted, the latent one, and the cause of all creation. He alone is the origin and the destruction. These three (states) are obstacles to all creatures obtaining (the fina 1 !) peace. As is svapna, so is sushupti, it (also) being said to be illusory. The chaturatma, the fourth, as he is Sat, Chit and Ekarasa (the one essence), ends as the fourth and follows (upon the heels of each of the above states), is the knower of the means of vikalpa- jfiana and is the anujnata (the one following knower). Having known them, and known as maya the three vikalpas of sushupti, svapna and antara (the inner), even in this state, is he not (to be known as) Sat-Chit-Ekarasa ?

This shall be expressed as differentiated thus : It is not even the gross prajna ; nor is it the very subtle prajna; nor is it prajna itself (of the causal body) : muni neither is it the trifling prajna ; nor is it the non- prajfia; nor is it the dual prajna; nor is it the internal prajna, though it is without prajna; it is Prajnana-ghana. It can never be known by the organs ; nor it can be known by the reason; it cannot be grasped by the organs of action. It can not be proved. It cannot be reached by thought. It cannot be proved by analogy.

It can be realised by Self-realisation alone. It is with the waking state, etc. It is the auspicious, with changes, without a second. Such a one is thought to be Turya. This alone is Brahman, Brahma-pranava. This should be known. There is no other Turya. To the aspirants after salvation, it is the support, like the sun everywhere ; it is the Self-light. As it alone is Brahman, this Brahma-Akas is shining always. Thus is the Upanishad."

Narada asked : " Who is Brahma-swarupa ? " To which Brahma replied thus : " Brahma-swarupa is thus : Those who know that he (Brahman) is one and I am another are only pas us (animals). The real pas us (animals) are no animals. The wise man who knows Brahman thus (as himself, and himself as Brahman) escapes out of the mouth of death. There is no other path to salvation.

Literatur

  • Thirty minor Upanishads,Narayanasvami K. Aiyar, 1914
  • Olivelle, Patrick (1992). The Samnyasa Upanisads. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195070453.